Types of Accounts
Step 1: Begin the class by choosing three volunteers in the class.
Step 2: Name the first volunteer “Names”
Step 3: Name the second volunteer “Tangible”: this includes things around you that you can see
Step 4: Name the third volunteer “Intangible”: this will include things that we cannot see.
Step 5: Ask the remaining seated students to each make a chit writing any of the objects that fall in the above three categories: foreg: Ram, Mohan, Salary, Loss, rent, Chair, School Fees, Table etc.
Step 6: You (Teacher) read out the chits one by one and ask the students to stand up who wrote the chit and stand with the category it belongs to.
Step 7: You will get a fair segregation of three categories.
These three categories are nothing but the three types of accounts as follows:
- “Names Category” or Personal Account: The elements or accounts which represent persons and organisations.
- Mrs. Vimla a/c – representing Mrs. Vimla a person.
- M/s Bharat & Co a/c – representing M/s Bharat & Co, an organisation.
- Capital a/c – representing the owner of the business, a person or organisation.
- Bank a/c – representing Bank, an organisation.
2. “Tangibles” or Real Accounts
The elements or accounts which represent tangible aspects.
- Cash a/c – representing cash which is tangible.
- Goods/Stock a/c – representing Stock which is tangible.
- Furniture a/c – representing Furniture which is tangible.
- “Intangible Category” or Nominal Accounts
The elements or accounts which represent expenses, losses, incomes, gains.
- Salaries a/c – representing expenditure on account of salaries, an expense.
- Interest received a/c – representing income on account of interest, an income.
- Loss on sale of Asset a/c – representing the loss incurred on sale of assets, a loss.
Step 1. Write down three sentences in three different tenses denoting the same action and ask the students to observe the difference .
a. He reached station .
b. He has reached station .
c. He had reached station before the train arrived .
Step 2. Ask questions on each sentence about the verb , it’s form and the usage .
a. It’s a statement on some past action .
b. It relates to the action already started but just completed .
c. This sentence has two actions . Earlier action is past perfect because it took place first and second action will be in simple past .
Step 3. Now we can derive the rules for each tense and understand their application by using them in situations . For example : state three things you did last night .
Ask question using has/ have so as to get answers using has/ have .
For example : Have done your home work ?
Has your friend come back ?
Give situations where two actions take place in past time . Ask them to join the sentence using past perfect and tell them the rule .
use had + auxiliary form of the verb to make past perfect .
use past perfect with the action that took place prior to the next . Use past tense for the action that took place later .
a. It started raining raining . Before i reached the bus station .
Ans : It had started raining before I reached the bus station
Step 4. Give exercises asking them to join the sentences to make past perfect tense .
Tell them to find the errors .
Give exercises with fill in the blanks .
Give oral practice using some language games .
Step 1. Ask a few simple questions using past continuous tense related to day to day activities done in past such as yesterday , last night , last evening etc . Such as : What were you doing at eight o’clock last night ?
I saw you in the market yesterday . What were you doing there ?
There will be a spontaneous response in the tense in which the question has been asked . In case of a mistake another child can be asked to answer and the process can continue till the correct answer is received .
Step 2. Write all the sentences on the black board and underline the verbs and auxiliaries .
Step 3. Now ask children to observe the common things in all the sentences . They will tell you the use of was/ were , the helping verbs and main verb + ing . Take this opportunity to reiterate the use of was for singular subject and were for plural subject .
Step 4. Conduct an oral drill using past continuous tense for some listed activities given in a substitution table . Such as : eating ice cream , having bath , listening to the news etc . Ask them to add suitable subjects and time of action . I was eating ice cream with my friend when the bell rang . Mother was having bath so she could not answer the phone . The television was on but no one was listening to the news .
Step 5. After giving enough practice it’s time to explain the rules and the usage .
The past form of the auxiliary ‘ be ‘ is ‘was ‘for singular subject and ‘were ‘ for plural subject .
Pin past continuous tense subject is followed by past form of ‘ be’ verb that is was / were + verb + ing and the rest of the sentence . Example : The dog was chasing the cat . The boys were playing football .
a. We use past continuous tense to talk about things happening in past without their time of finishing . For example : It was getting dark .
b. It can also be used to talk of an action which began much before another action such as : When I arrived home mother was cooking dinner .
c. It is also used to describe actions in a narrative or description such as : The man was walking briskly with his hands in the pocket . The Girl was playing piano and singing to herself etc .
Step 6. It’s practice time now . Give a few exercises for oral practice asking students to use the given verbs and the subjects in past continuous tense . Example : Ravi …………….. ………. a letter . ( write )
Step 7. Give a few written exercises to be done in class . Make them check the answers from the board and rate themselves .
Step 1. Write a few sentences using present continuous tense on board .
Step 2. Ask a student to read them .
Step 3. Ask another student to enact the action before the class and then repeat the sentence using action .
Step 4. Ask children to frame a few sentences in the given tense using the pattern of the sentences written on board .
Step 5. Now is the time to observe the rules regarding the verb . Ask questions on auxiliary / helping verbs their singular and plural forms , use of ing in the main verb etc . Tell them that is, are ,am are the present forms of the auxiliary verb ‘be ‘ .
Step 6. Give them a few sentences with errors in the use of helping verbs and the main verbs and ask them to identify the error .
Step 7. Write the wrong and correct sentence along side for a comparison .
Step 8. Now give them a few situations and ask them to frame sentences using present continuous tense .
a. Situation – Describe the action you see Infront of you .
Think of an activity you are in middle of . For example : I am
painting a pot . It means the pot is not yet completely painted
Talk of an action you or someone is in the habit of doing
frequently such as : My sister is always losing her books .
Step 9. Now write down the rules on board : subject followed by auxiliary / helping verb is/ are/ am + main verb + ing followed by rest of the sentence .
Step 10 . Give some oral practice followed by written exercises to confirm the learning outcome .
Step 1. Ask the students to name a few actions and write them on the black board .
Step 2. Choose an action and ask a student to use it in a sentence .
Step 3. Ask on other student whether the sentence is correct .
Step 4 . Ask another child about the tense of the said sentence .
Step 5. Likewise do this for activity for simple present and simple past tense bringing out how the verbs and their form changes the tense in a sentence . This is the recapitulation part of the lesson . Without a quick recap of previous tenses the ensuing tense will not make sense to the children .
Step 6. Ask a few questions on the words present and perfect per se their literal meaning .
Step 7. Use the words present and perfect to explain the present perfect tense with examples such as . Have you finished your work ? Elicit an answer from the students . Yes , I have finished my work .
Here the work which has been completed is being enquired about and has its implication in present which is if you have finished the work submit it . Thus the work done in the past is connected to present that’s why it is called present perfect tense .
Step 8. Make a few sentences in present perfect tense and write them on board .
Step 9 . Ask the students to identify the the action verbs and helping verbs used in these sentences .
Step 10. Now derive the rules governing present perfect tense : subject followed by has / have + past participle form of the main verb followed by the object .
Step 11. Tell them or reiterate the use of has for a singular subject and have for plural along I and you which are exceptions .
Step 12 . Follow it by oral and written exercises in the use of present perfect tense .