1. How could you use a flame test to distinguish between hard and soft water?
2. After a period of time, your ion-exchange water softener no longer removes hard-water ions. How can you "refresh" your water softener, using a material obtained from the grocery store?
3. The deionized water in the Chemistry Department is produced by ion exchange that uses H+ ions, rather than Na+ ions, to replace the cations found in the water. Briefly, explain why the pH of deionized water is typically found to be around 6.
4. Explain why solutions of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the presence of carbonate leave deposits (see Equation 1), but Na+ does not.
5. Write the net ionic equation for the removal of calcium ions by precipitation with carbonate in the lime-soda process. (See the introduction to Experiment 2 for a discussion of net ionic equations.)
6. Could sodium ions be removed in the same way as magnesium ions in the lime-soda process (i.e., by addition of hydroxide) for individuals concerned about their sodium intake? Briefly, explain your reasoning.
Evaluation parameters to assess the understanding of the students
Impromptu changes made if any during activity, reasons
Any suggestions for other teachers while implementing this activity in classroom.
The more application based question you ask children they understand the concept better.
The brainstorming questions can be used by class 9, 10 and 11th students also.
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