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class VII

Key Concepts

transhumance, modes of transportation, settlements, site, communication, airways, waterways, railways, roadways

essential questions

1. Why do you think most of the early civilizations settled around rivers?
2. Do you still see the same pattern of what we saw in early civilizations prevailing in the modern day society?
3. How does transportation play a role in settlements?


  1. Define transhumance.
  2. Do you recall the names of civilization that grew along the banks of river Indus, Tigirs, Nile and Hwang Ho?
  3. Name the means of transport.

I. Fill in the blanks:

a) People in deserts or deep forest live in ____ settlements

b) In regions of heavy rainfall houses have___ roofs.

c) _____ are built over raised structures.

d) The trans siberian railways connect ____ to _____

e) The place where building or a settlement develops is called____

II. State True or false:

a) Settlements occupied for a shorter period of time are called temporary settlements

b) In areas of hot climate houses have slanting roofs

c) In Tibet Llamas are used as mode of transport

d) Airways are the fastest and costliest means of transport

e) Newspaper have made communication even faster.

III. Match the contents of A with B.

Column A                       Column B

  1. Manali- leh            Manufacturer, trade services
  2. Waterways             Highest rail route
  3. Xining to Lhasa     Agriculture, fishing, forestry
  4. Urban Areas           Highest road way
  5. Rural areas             Cheapest mode of transport


  1. How did early human beings depend entirely on nature?
  2. What new skills did human beings learn in course of time?
  3. What are settlements? How did human beings start to have permanent settlements?
  4. What is site? Which factors help to select a site for settlement?
  5. What are the two types of settlements on the basis of period for which they are occupied? Give some features of temporary settlements.
  6. Explain major features of permanent settlements.
  7. What is the reason behind increased urban population?
  8. What is the situation of villages in comparison with cities?
  9. What are different types of settlements?
  10. What is transport? Give a brief history of transport development.
  11. Describe the roadways as a means of transport.
  12. Can you tell why there are more roads in the plains than in the hills?
  13. What are expressways? Give example.
  14. Account for railways as means of land transport.
  15. Write major features of sea route . Name some of the important ports of the world.
  16. Give an account of Airways as a means of transport.
  17. Write a note on communication.


  1. Explain how using various waterways as means of transport have been a boon to development of human civilization?
  2. Why do you think an expansive railway network plays a very important role developing the economy of the country?


  1. How have settlements changed over a period of time?
  2. How does rise in population affect the city?