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Subject:

science-biology

Class:

class VIII

Key Concepts

agricultural practices, animal husbandry, crop, fertilizers, granaries, harvesting, irrigation, kharif, manure, plough, rabi, seeds, silo, sowing, storage, winnowing, threshing, weedicide

essential questions

1. Do you think improved varieties and better management practices will be the key to future increases in food production?

Remembering:

  1. Name two rabi and kharif crops respectively.
  2. Name the months in which rabi and Kharif crops are grown respectively.
  3. List the various agricultural practices that take place to grow a crop.
  4. Name two organisms that are friends of farmer.
  5. Name two chemical fertilizers.
  6. The science of rearing, caring, breeding and improvement of domestic animals is known as:  a) pisciculture   b) apiculture   c) manimal caring  d) none of the above
  7. Propagation of ginger is generally done using : a)  seed  b) stem rhizome  c)  root  d)  leaf
  8. In which of the following statement is or are incorrect? a)irrigation is the process of watering in the field b) sowing is the process of adding seeds in field  c) harvesting is the process of cutting crops before matured  d)  none of the above.
  9. Fish is good for health, we get cod liver fish oil from fish, which is rich in: a) vitamin – b  b) vitamin – c  c) vitamin – d   d) vitamin – e
  10. Fill in the blanks:
  1. The same kind of plants grown on a large scale at a place is called_________.
  2. The first step before growing crops is _____ of the soil.
  3. Damaged seeds would_____ on top of water.
  4. For growing a crop sufficient sunlight, ____ and ____ from soil are essential.
  5. The unwanted plants growing with the main crop are called_____
  6. _____ is rearing and large scale production of fish.
  7. _____ is the process of separating grains from the cut crop.
  8. The crops grown in rainy season and harvested in September/October are called_____ crops
  9. The crops which ar egrwon in rany season and harvested in march/ april is called______ crops.
  10. Rabi crops are sown in_______ season.
  11. Kharif crops are sown in _______ season
  12. Whaet and gram are ______ crops
  13. Paddy is ______ crop
  14. The activities undertaken by farmers over a period of time for cultivation of crops are know as______
  15. The process of turning or loosening of soil is called _____ or _____
  16. A______ is used for tilling of the soil
  17. Hoe and cultivator are used for_______
  18. ______ is the process of putting seeds in the soil.
  19. The agricultural tool used for removing weeds and loosening of soil is______
  20. _____obtained from plant or animal waste such as cattle dung, droppings, etc.
  21. The supply of water to crops in the fields at different intervals is called______
  22. Falling of water drop by drop at the roots of the plants is called______
  23. Harvesting is done manually using______ or by using machine called______
  24. _____ is the machine used for harvesting and threshing both.
  25. The separation of the grains from the chaff with the help of wind is known as______
  26. The study and care of animals is known as______
  27. ______ and _____ are the methods used for irrigation in India.
  28. The process of separating grain from ______ sing wind is called winnowing
  29. Urea and phosphate are________
  30. Physical removal of weeds by uprooting or cutting, with the help of a_______
  31. _____ is a simple tool which is used for removing weeds and for loosening of soil.
  32. Heavier seeds are sown in the soil by two ways_____ and seed drill.
  33. ____ is an organic substance obtained from the decomposition of plant or animal wastes.
  34. The removal of weeds is called_____
  35. 2,4-D is a _________
  36. The process of removing chaff from grain is called______
    1. Match the following:
  37. Kharif crops wheat, gram, pea
  38. Rabi crops paddy and maize
  39. Chemical Fertilizers animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste
  40. Organic manure Urea and super phosphate

understanding:

  1. Why is it important to loosen the soil before sowing happens?
  2. Write a short note on the process of ploughing.
  3. Write a short note on the any 2 agricultural tools used for ploughing.
  4. Why do you think selection of seeds is important before sowing?
  5. What is transplantation?
  6. What do you understand by fallow land?
  7. What is decomposition?
  8. Write the difference between manure and fertilizers.
  9. What are the various sources of irrigation.
  10. Write the difference between drip irrigation and sprinkler system?
  11. What are weedicides?
  12. What is stubble burning practice taken by farmers?
  13. Write a short note on methods of storage.
  14. The monsoon season in our country is during the months: a) April to December   b)  June to September  c) November to March  d)  January to May
  15.  “The animals or livestock in animals’ husbandry practices include many activities”.  Which is the following statements is or are not associated with it?  a) provide appropriate shelter, food and water facilities b) provide good hygienic practices  c)  provide time to time medical facilities  d) none of the above
  16. What measures must be taken to protect spoilage and insect attack of harvested grains a)  exposing them in sunlight for drying  b) fumigation of the storage are to remove its insects  c) tulsi leaves are added to stored grains  d)  both (b) and (c).
  17. The process of loosening and turning of soil is called: a) irrigation and manuring   b) digging and winnowing   c) tilling and ploughing  d) harvesting and storage
  18. In which of the statement is or are correct?  a) growing different crops in different seasons in the same field will deplete the soil of nutrients  b) chain pump is the traditional method of irrigation  c)  leguminous plant can fix nitrogen  d)  none of the above.
  19. Select the incorrect match: i) kharif crop: paddy and wheat  ii) rabi crop: mustard and linseed  iii) storage of grains: silos and granaries  iv) weeds: amaranthaus and chenopodium  a) only i   b) ii and iii only   c) iii only  d) iii and iv only

Application:

  1. Rice is a kharif crop. Give reasons why its not grown in winter season.
  2. Why does loosening of soil allow the roots to breathe easily?
  3. How do the various agricultural tools help in tilling the soil faster?
  4. Why do seeds float in water?
  5. Why do you think appropriate distance is required between the seeds when sowing them?
  6. Why is it important to leave the land fallow for sometime by the farmer?
  7. How is decomposition of plant and animal waste considered a good agricultural practice by the farmers?
  8. Why is need of irrigation higher in summers than in winters? Give reasons.

Analysis:

  1. Farmer A decides not to leave his farm fallow for some time. He decides to grow wheat crop in the Rabi season, right after harvesting rice. Can you think of some techniques via which he can continue growing his crops and get a good harvest too?
  2. Farmer B has been facing water shortage in his fields as it has not rained very well this monsoon so the ground water level has gone down. He has been a regular user of fertilizers and has been having a bumper yield of crops every year. What would  suggest him to change in his agricultural practice and give reasons for the same?
  3. How are modern day irrigation system better than traditional methods of irrigation system?
  4. Why is there so much argument on stubble burning practice taken up by farmers after the harvest season?
  5. The semi- arid plains of a particular region show a pattern of alternating yellow and black stripes on the ground. The yellow stripes consist of land covered by ripening wheat. The black stripes are bare soil on which no crop is grown but farmers use herbicides or tillage to remove any weeds that try to grow in that region.
  6. Why do farmers in this region manage soils in this way?  a) farmers put the half of their land to rest for minimizing erosion and soil degradation   b) farmers discourage transpiration in the wheat plantation by allowing free evaporation from the soil of the bare stripes  c) Farmer try to store some part of one year’s rainwater in the soil under the bare stripes and use that water to supplement the rain on wheat crop planted the next year  d) all of these
  7. Choose combination of statements which indicate need to irrigate crops a) seeds require moisture for germination and plants can absorb nutrients in dissolved form b) seeds require moisture for germination, plants can absorb nutrients in dissolved form, irrigation protect crops from frost and hot air currents  c) seeds require moisture for germination, plants can absorb nutrients in dissolved form, irrigation protect crops from frost and hot air currents and irrigation improves soil texture d) seeds require moisture for germination and irrigation protect crops from frost and hot air currents.
  8. Refer to the given Venn diagram and identify X, Y and Z
    a) X- combine     Y- thresher   Z- sickle   b) X- combine   Y- Sickle   Z- Thresher    c) X- harvester  Y-sickle  Z- trowel    d) X- sickle   Y- towel  Z- harrow
  9. Read the following statements and select the correct option: Statement1: Pheromones are used a biological method to control pest. Statement 2: Pheromones lure adult male insects into special traps and prevent them rom breeding   a) Both statement 1 and 2 are true and statement 2 is the correct explanation of statement 1   b) both statements 1 and 2 are true but statement 2 is not the correct explanation of statement 1  c) Statement 1 is true but statement 2 is false   d) Both statements 1 and 2 are false
  10. Pick the odd one out from each series below and select the correct option: i) chain pump, dhekli, drip system, pulley system    ii) urea, oxychloride, potash, ammonium sulphate  iii) Khurpi, weedicides, seed drill, silos  iv) sowing, irrigation, hybridisation, harvesting   v) 2, 4-D, MCPA, Butachlor, BHC      a) i- dhekli  ii- urea  iii-khurpi  iv- irrigation  v- butachlor     b) i- drip system  ii-oxychloride  iii- silos  iv- hybridization  v- BHC  c) i- chain pump   ii- potash  iii- seed drill iv- sowing  v- MCPA   d) i- dhekli  ii- urea  iii- silos  iv- harvesting  v- butachlor
  11. Take a beaker and fill half of it with water. Put some wheat seeds in it, stir it and wait for sometime. Which of the following holds true regarding the observation and inference of this experiment.    a) healthy seeds being lighter float on the surface of water   b) damaged seeds being lighter float on the surface of water  c) some healthy seeds and some damaged seeds float on the surface of water   d) damaged seeds being heavier settle down at the bottom.
  12. In which of the following agricultural practices, the nutrient requirements of one crop are fulfilled  by the other crop where * soyabean  # mustard  maize  + wheat:   Which of the options are correct?

Evaluation:

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